Soarchain — DePIN for Mobility

Soarchain — DePIN for Mobility

BY SoarchainMay 11 · 20 min read

Soarchain is a modular Layer-1, Decentralized Physical Infrastructure Network (DePIN) built to enhance the development and deployment of connected mobility and edge applications.

Why we are building with the Interchain Stack

Soarchain is built on the Interchain Stack, utilizing the advanced technologies such as CometBFT, Cosmos SDK, CosmWasm and the Inter-Blockchain Communication (IBC) protocol to create a robust, secure, and adaptable blockchain network.

CometBFT: CometBFT aids Soarchain by providing a robust, secure, and consistent framework for replicating its blockchain application across multiple machines. By leveraging CometBFT’s Byzantine Fault Tolerant (BFT) State Machine Replication (SMR), Soarchain can ensure resistance to a wide range of attacks, including Sybil attacks and double-spending.

Cosmos SDK: The Cosmos SDK has been instrumental in bootstrapping the Soarchain network. Its modular architecture has made it easy to develop custom modules for our specific use cases, such as the Proof-of-Availability and Data Provision Request modules. Furthermore, the Cosmos SDK allows us to adjust the cost of computation according to our specific needs, which is crucial for managing the computational resources of our network efficiently.

CosmWasm: CosmWasm provides us with a flexible and upgradable smart contract platform. This has been crucial for enabling a customized layer-1 blockchain for application developers in mobility. The flexibility of CosmWasm allows us to adapt and upgrade our network as the needs of our users evolve, ensuring that Soarchain remains a cutting-edge solution for decentralized mobility networks.

IBC: The IBC protocol allows us to outsource various functions to other chains and to transfer assets across chains. This is crucial for enabling cross-chain collaboration and for expanding the capabilities of our network. For example, we can use IBC to outsource the computation of complex data analytics tasks to specialized computation chains, or to transfer data tokens across chains for trading or for use in other applications.

Community: The interchain community’s ethos of building and decentralization aligns perfectly with our vision for Soarchain. The community’s support and contributions have been invaluable in developing and growing our network. Furthermore, the community’s commitment to open-source development and to the principles of decentralization ensures that our network remains open, transparent, and secure.

Existing limitations

The mobility sector faces several significant limitations that cause a range of operational inefficiencies and limit advancements in technology. These challenges compromise the potential for enhancing vehicle performance, safety and user experience, emphasizing the need for innovative solutions like Soarchain to address the existing gaps. The challenges are:

Unutilized real-time data

Modern vehicles are parallel to smartphones on wheels, equipped with sensors and systems that generate approximately 2 terabytes of data each day. Despite this wealth of information, much of it remains unutilized instead of being harnessed for valuable insights. This data, which could revolutionize aspects of safety, maintenance, and overall driving experience, presents a significant opportunity that could become feasible only through the capabilities offered by DePIN.

DePIN verification problem

The DePIN verification problem stems from the difficulty in verifying physical sensor data within blockchain networks, hindered by scalability constraints and the lack of effective hardware or software solutions to ensure data authenticity without introducing centralization or vulnerability to attacks.

Privacy concerns

Privacy concerns in the vehicles and mobility sector center around extensive data collection, including GPS locations, driving behaviors, and even biometric data, raising issues about data consent, sharing, and security.

Fragmentation and lack of interoperability

Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) are fragmented as they have exclusive systems and standards developed independently within the industry. Each OEM may produce vehicles with unique communication protocols, software ecosystems or charging technologies, which are not compatible with those of other manufacturers. This leads to a competitive yet segmented market where each OEM must invest heavily in their own solutions, often duplicating efforts and limiting the potential for industry-wide advancements in technology. Consortiums formed in the past for interoperability have often failed due to issues such as favoritism and excessive centralization. For instance, Toyota and Ford use different proprietary software for their electric vehicle charging systems, making it difficult for consumers to use charging stations interchangeably between these brands


By transforming how data is utilized and shared , Soarchain brings the mobility ecosystem closer to its vision of a seamlessly connected, secure and efficient future in a number of ways:

Runner Nodes

Runner Nodes are specialized nodes within the Soarchain network that employs a layer-2 scaling solution that handles a significant portion of data processing tasks like a decentralized sequencer. Their primary purpose is to offload work from the main blockchain by data management, collecting public keys, forming Merkle trees and sending the summaries to the main blockchain. This addresses scalability issues by reducing the load and congestion on the primary network. This setup allows Soarchain to handle an increased volume of transactions and data without a proportional increase in network load.

Runners also verify the highly mobile data. It uses basic preliminary anomaly detection algorithms to check the integrity, plausibility and authenticity of the data and introduces a scoring mechanism to punish a malicious provider. Soarchain uses probabilistic subsampling to tackle the self dealing and lazy data providers.


In the Soarchain network, zk-SNARKs, particularly through the Groth16 scheme, play a crucial role in enhancing privacy and ensuring robust data verification without compromising sensitive information. This cryptographic technology enables vehicles to prove the authenticity and integrity of their data, such as Parameter IDs (PIDs) that contain vital vehicle diagnostics, without revealing the actual content. This is done through efficient management of cryptographic proofs and zero-knowledge plausibility checks on data like fuel pressure or engine temperature, ensuring that sensitive details remain confidential while maintaining data integrity and security on the blockchain. This dual capability of privacy preservation and reliable verification makes zk-SNARKs invaluable for maintaining trust and security within the Soarchain network.

Data ownership

Soarchain ensures data ownership through a combination of cryptographic security measures and blockchain technology. By leveraging blockchain’s inherent properties of decentralization and immutability, Soarchain assigns and records ownership directly within the network, ensuring that data source is clearly established and tamper-proof. Each data point generated within the network is cryptographically signed by the Soarchain device, linking it to its source. This method not only secures data from unauthorized alterations but also empowers users by giving them control over their own data.

Furthermore, Soarchain incorporates smart contracts, allowing data owners to set conditions under which their data can be accessed or shared, thus reinforcing data ownership rights while facilitating data exchange under agreed terms.


Soarchain hardware uses a Trusted Execution Environment (TEE) which enhances data ownership and security by providing a secure, isolated area within a device where sensitive operations are safeguarded. As a secure element, the TEE stores private cryptographic keys essential for data encryption and digital signing, ensuring that these keys are inaccessible to the main operating system and potential attackers. By handling cryptographic functions such as authentication and encryption internally, the TEE maintains the integrity and confidentiality of data, allowing only authorized users to access or manipulate it. This robust security mechanism is crucial for protecting data ownership in environments where data security and privacy are paramount.

Soarchain employs a tiered certification system to reinforce the security and trustworthiness of its network. At the highest level, there is the Soarchain Master Certificate, validating and overseeing Factory Certificates which are granted to hardware manufacturers. These factory certificates attest to a manufacturer’s commitment to rigorous security and quality standards, thereby ensuring that each new hardware component integrated into the Soarchain ecosystem complies with these high standards. Further down the hierarchy, Device Certificates authenticate individual hardware units, safeguarding them against potential tampering. The system also permits manufacturers to initiate Certificate Signing Requests through governance proposals using an on-chain Root Certificate, promoting a secure, transparent, and scalable method for incorporating new manufacturers. This structured approach to certification not only secures the manufacturing process but also supports crucial functionalities such as trustless Over-the-Air (OTA) updates for device firmware, thereby enhancing data security across the Soarchain network.


The Proof of Availability (PoAv) in Soarchain is a verification method designed to ensure that data from devices in the network is not only transmitted but also accurately received and recorded. This method relies on selective verification, where only a subset of all messages transmitted and received by Soarchain devices are validated. The logarithm of the total number of messages sent and received, divided by the number of messages actually checked, must be greater than a specific network security setting. After this initial pre-verification phase, the verified data is transformed into a format similar to blockchain transactions or “messages”. These messages are then used to construct Merkle trees within Soarchain’s verification layer. Once a certain threshold of messages is reached, a proof is generated from these Merkle trees.

This proof, along with metadata about the data, is submitted to the blockchain, where it is immutably recorded. This robust process not only secures the integrity of the data transmitted across the Soarchain network but also ensures its availability for interaction by any participant on the blockchain. PoAv provides a decentralized, secure, and transparent mechanism for confirming the presence and accuracy of data originating from real-world sources.

Unified and incentivized platform

Soarchain provides a unified platform for the mobility ecosystem by utilizing blockchain technology to create a decentralized network where all participants, including OEMs, drivers, developers, pedestrians, and service providers, can interact securely and transparently. This system integrates various elements of the mobility sector, providing seamless data exchanges, transactions and collaborations. Soarchain incentivizes participants for contributing data, maintaining the network, developing applications or using services/dApps. This not only encourages active involvement from all parties but also ensures that contributions are fairly compensated, promoting a cooperative and thriving ecosystem where innovation and efficiency are continuously enhanced.

Our vision

Building on the solutions outlined above, Soarchain aims to set new standards in transportation technology and connectivity. Our vision at Soarchain is to reshape and advance the mobility ecosystem in the following ways:

AppStore of Mobility

Soarchain envisions itself as the AppStore of mobility. Due to the native CosmWasm compatibility and availability of verified real-time highly-mobile data it enables decentralized applications (dApps) like never before. Applications like decentralized car hailing, pay-as-you drive and pay-how-you drive vehicle insurance, intelligent traffic flow management, intelligent road monitoring and mapping, vehicle maintenance, roadside emergency assistance, driver-assist features, in-vehicle payment system, autonomous fleet management and many more.

Therefore, Soarchain not only distributes network rewards but also actively develops a network enriched with diverse dApps and services that serves practical use cases for participants. This strategy extends the utility of the network beyond mere financial incentives.

Catalyst to smart city

Soarchain acts as a vital catalyst for the development of smart cities by facilitating Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS), integrating payment and ticketing systems, and enhancing the functionality of Connected and Autonomous Vehicles (CAVs). By supporting Mobility as a Service (MaaS), Soarchain allows for a seamless integration of various transport options, which can be accessed on-demand by users through a single platform, thereby simplifying urban mobility. The platform’s ability to process real-time data also enables dynamic pricing and incentives, optimizing costs for users based on traffic patterns and demand.

Additionally, Soarchain encourages citizen engagement by providing a feedback mechanism within its network, allowing for continual improvement of services based on user input. Together, these features not only enhance urban transportation efficiency but also contribute to the broader vision of smart, responsive, and interconnected urban environments.

Soarchain x Suzuki

The collaboration between Suzuki and the development company behind Soarchain on the V2X (Vehicle to Everything) technology is a pivotal success story in the mobility ecosystem, aiming to enhance the safety and efficiency of transportation systems. Initiated by Suzuki’s research and development team in Japan, the project sought to explore the possibilities of vehicle connectivity, eventually expanding its scope to Silicon Valley to leverage cutting-edge technological solutions. This partnership was facilitated by the innovation platform Plug and Play, which connected Suzuki with Soar Robotics, a startup specializing in software-defined embedded solutions for autonomous vehicles.

V2X technology operates via an app installed both in vehicles and on pedestrians’ mobile devices, enhancing drivers’ situational awareness beyond what traditional mirrors provide. It alerts users to various potential hazards, such as incoming traffic, jaywalkers, and emergency vehicles, thereby aiming to reduce accidents and improve traffic flow. Over two years, from April 2020 to April 2022, the technology underwent extensive real-world testing in Hyderabad, India, supported by local government and technical experts from Suzuki Japan, alongside the Soar Robotics team.

The testing phase covered five critical scenarios: Ambulance Alert, Wrong Way Driver Alert, Pedestrian Alert, Bike/2-Wheel Drivers Alert, and Road Condition Alert. These tests were designed to demonstrate how V2X technology could significantly enhance driver reaction times and decision-making in potentially hazardous situations. Despite the promising results, the broader adoption of V2X technology faces hurdles, primarily due to the lack of a unified ecosystem that supports seamless integration across Vehicle to Vehicle (V2V), Vehicle to Pedestrian (V2P) and Vehicle to Infrastructure (V2I) communications, which Soarchain aims to solve.

As the project concluded, the engagement highlighted the necessity of continuous testing and approval from various stakeholders to accelerate the implementation process. Suzuki continues to champion this technology, aiming to keep next-generation vehicles competitive and safe in a global market that is increasingly focusing on similar innovations. The success of V2X technology in improving road safety hinges on creating a cohesive ecosystem that can support and adapt these advancements on a large scale.

What we bring to the Interchain ecosystem

The interchain ecosystem serves as a prime example of collaborative innovation in blockchain technology due to its unique architecture. Soarchain enhances this vibrant ecosystem by adding value in the following ways:

Industry Hub

Soarchain positions itself as an industry hub within the interchain ecosystem, capitalizing on the rapid growth and transformation anticipated in the mobility sector. As the industry evolves toward a projected $620 billion valuation by 2030, with autonomous vehicles playing a significant role, Soarchain aims to streamline and enhance the interactions among various mobility stakeholders, including OEMs, developers and consumers.

By leveraging its blockchain infrastructure, Soarchain facilitates the efficient exchange of data and services across different platforms, reducing inefficiencies such as the hours lost in traffic, which currently range from 80 to 120 hours annually depending on the location.

Furthermore, Soarchain’s integration into the interchain ecosystem allows for seamless connectivity and interoperability between emerging technologies and existing transportation systems, promoting innovation and ensuring that the infrastructure can scale with the expected surge in global spending to $3.7 trillion by 2030. In essence, Soarchain is not just contributing to the growth of the interchain ecosystem; it is shaping the future of mobility by creating a decentralized, secure, and user-focused platform that aligns with the industry’s expansive trajectory.

Data Availability layer for highly-mobile physical nodes

Soarchain is positioned to serve as a Data Availability Layer, specifically focusing on integrating physical and highly mobile nodes. Its mission centers around capturing and verifying data from these nodes, ranging from vehicles to mobile devices and ensuring this data is securely and efficiently brought onto the blockchain by using Runner Nodes, which can also be run on mobile devices itself.

By leveraging the IBC protocol, Soarchain not only ensures the seamless transfer of this valuable data across different blockchains within the interchain but also facilitates reciprocal interactions. This integration allows Soarchain to utilize the unique capabilities of other chains, enhancing its service offerings. For instance, it can leverage Jackal Protocol for decentralized storage solutions, Akash for computational offloading to manage large datasets efficiently, and Secret Network to ensure that data remains private and secure. Through these synergies, Soarchain significantly enhances the utility and operational efficiency of the interchain ecosystem, turning it into a robust, interconnected framework where verified data from the physical world enhances digital transactions and interactions across various platforms. This strategic positioning not only drives innovation within the mobility sector but also supports broader ecosystem growth by providing a reliable infrastructure for data availability and utility.

True adoption

Soarchain drives the true adoption of blockchain technology by developing tangible and efficient applications directly integrated into the mobility ecosystem. By embedding blockchain into real-world uses like traffic management and vehicle safety, Soarchain offers practical solutions that are noticeably more efficient than current systems. For instance, its smart traffic management system leverages real-time data aggregation from various sources on the blockchain to optimize routing and reduce congestion. This data can further be utilized by AI models to even predict the traffic flow.

Similarly, the vehicle-to-vehicle communication systems enhance road safety by providing immediate updates on traffic conditions and potential hazards. These applications not only demonstrate the practical benefits of blockchain but also ensure that they are directly relatable and beneficial to everyday users, thus bridging the gap between advanced technology and practical usability, empowering broader adoption and enhancing the overall ecosystem.

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